EV Charge Stations

When gas and diesel vehicles cost more to buy and operate then electric cars, demand for EV charge stations will grow. This paper reviews the potential of a community based charge station on Hayden Island.

A solar-powered EV charge station with both Level 2 and DC fast charging may cost $60-$75,000, but it could uniquely provide Portlanders with power resiliency along with quick (30 minute) Electric Vehicle charging.

The State of Oregon has a goal of 50,000 zero-emissions vehicles by 2020 (with only 18,000 today). Here are the EV charge stations currently available near Hayden Island.

The PlugShare map and West Coast Green Highway Map show what chargers are near you. Charger networks generally cost money to use and have a variety of plans. Level 2 charging may cost around $1.50/hr. The biggest charging networks include ChargePoint, AeroVironment, Blink, EvGo and Tesla. Charge stations may be found at Fred Meyer, Walgreens, Walmart, U-Haul, Kohl’s and car dealerships. You may charge for free at PGE’s Electric Avenue, Clark Utilities and other locations.

Tesla’s Superchargers are nominally capable of charging at 145 kilowatts, though individual cars only charge at 120 kw, or about 200 miles in half an hour. Electrify America is building a rival network to Tesla Superchargers and accessible to electric cars made by any automaker.

Electric Vehicle Charge Stations come in three levels, slow, medium and fast.

  • Level 1 charger is the slowest. Mostly for home use for overnight charging, using 110 volts AC. Takes 8+ hours to get 40 miles of range. Draws about 1.5 kWatts.
  • Level 2 charger uses 220 volts AC (like a clothes dryer). One hour of charging can deliver between 10 – 25 miles. Draws 6-8 KWatts.
  • DC Fast Chargers deliver the fastest charge. A low-range (75 mi) electric car can be charged in less than half an hour. Draws 60-400 kWatts.

The “J” plug became standard equipment in the U.S. market due in part to the availability of it in the West Coast Green Highway and ChargePoint America networks. The common EV charging plug can handle both Level 1 (110 volt AC) and Level 2 (220 Volt AC).

Fast Charging standards:
There are two types of connectors that currently support DC Fast Chargers: CHAdeMO and SAE. The Japanese-developed CHAdeMO standard is favored by Nissan, Mitsubishi, and Toyota, while the Society of Automotive Engineers’ (SAE) standard, the Combined Charging System (CCS) is backed by FCA, GM, Ford, Volkswagen, and BMW. A Nissan LEAF can charge from 0% to 85% in ~30 minutes.

The Tesla Supercharger has their own proprietary, 480-volt DC fast-charging network for their own vehicles. Most DC Fast Chargers deliver from 60 KWatts to well over 100 KiloWatts, enabling you to “fill up” in 30-45 minutes.

(1) Red Lion Hotel, 909 N Hayden Island Dr, Portland, OR 97217
Currently, only the Red Lion Hotel currently has a public charge station for electric vehicles on the Island. You must be a guest of the hotel. It has two 110/220 charge stations, one for Tesla and the other for LEAF and similar cars. Near the main entrance.

(1) Portland Expo Center, 2060 N Marine Dr, Portland, OR 97217: Three Blink charge stations, near the front gate.

(2) Delta Park Walmart: Two fast charge EVgo Charging Stations, 1123 N Hayden Meadows Dr, 97217. Located in the main (North) Parking lot. This is the fastest charger near Hayden Island, although Clark Public Utilites also has a DC fast charger at 1200 Fort Vancouver Way.

(3) Best Western Hotel, 1215 N Hayden Meadows Dr. 97217:
Two ChargePoint CT4000 Charge Stations, with CHAdeMO, CCS1/CCS2 connectors, as well as three Tesla Destination Chargers (20 kW or 80A at 250V AC single-phase). Located along the west side near the front entrance.

Many solar rebates have disappeared. The Business Energy Tax Credit (BETC) has been absent for years, while the Residential Energy Tax Credit (RETC) wrapped up at the end of 2017. Energy Tax Credits allowed non-profits to sell their tax credits to businesses.

Renewable Energy Certificates allowed businesses to purchase tax credits generated from solar arrays on schools, for example. While Oregon state incentives for solar are gone, the 30% federal tax credit remains through 2019, then is phased out.

Energy Trust of Oregon cash incentives also remain available to customers of Portland General Electric, Pacific Power, NW Natural, and Cascade Natural Gas. The Oregon Public Utility Commission oversees Energy Trust’s investment of utility customer funds in energy-efficiency and renewable power programs.

A new program, community solar, will not be online until 2019. Community solar will allow utility customers to own or subscribe into a shared solar array with other community members, delivering clean energy to the grid while customers receive a credit on each utility bill.

The Portland Clean Energy Fund would impose a new 1% surcharge on revenue for retail corporations that make over $1 billion in annual national sales to generate revenues for in-city renewable energy and job creation. The Portland Clean Energy Fund is on the ballot in November, but it won’t make a material impact until 2020 (after receipts are collected).

The Community Electric Vehicle Project, a collaboration between Hacienda CDC and Forth, made shared electric vehicles and chargers available in Portland’s Cully neighborhood.

Seattle’s on-demand Chariot service will be free for the first few months, but will eventually cost the same as a standard Metro bus ride.

The 7-kilowatt/13.5-kilowatt-hour Tesla Powerwall offers the highest energy density battery for the lowest available price and can power a level 2 charger. The $7,500 system requires $1,000 to $2,000 in installation costs.

A solar-powered charge station on Hayden Island might combine an 8,000 watt solar array with a 60 kilowatt/hr Nissan 2019 Leaf (it times of emergency) which can feed power back to the microgrid. No need for a Tesla Power Wall. The electric vehicles and bikes could either be provided by Uber or purchased by private individuals or organizations for rental (via Turo).

The charge station with a DC fast charger might cost between $50,000-$60,000 (with 50% matching from PGE, Forth and VW Diesel settlement). Uber and their electric bikes might partner with PGE/Forth on the solar hub for both electric cars and bikes on Hayden Island. But providing enough battery capacity for DC fast charging is probably not cost/effective yet.

TriMet ridership has fallen 4% since 2000 and auto ownership has decreaased in Multnomah County, but short-range vehicles and bikes are on the rise.

The $7,500 tax credit for electric vehicles will be phased out when a manufacturer reaches 200,000 units while many used electric vehicles are available under $10,000.

Metro’s PILOT grant program accepts applications ranging from $25,000 to $150,000. The VW Diesel Settlement decree allows up to 15 percent of each state’s allocation – which is $10.9 million in Oregon – for EV charging stations.

– Our target is a solar-powered EV charge station with both Level 2 and DC fast charging. It may cost nearly $75,000, but it could uniquely provide power resiliency after an earthquake (through a Leaf electric vehicle or Tesla Powerwall), while delivering quick (30 minute) charging.

– A Level 2 charge station with 7 kWatt output ($1000) combined with an 8 kWatt solar array ($15,000), could charge up a 60 kWatt/hr electric car like the 2019 Leaf in about 8 hours — with NO grid power. It may provide community resiliency AND pay for itself.

– DC fast chargers ($45,000), with their 30-45 minute charge times, will be necessary to attract consumers. They are attached to the existing electric grid. That raises the cost to nearly $60,000, but the availability of rebates, incentives, and VW Settlement funds through 2019 makes this an attractive option with a narrow window of opportunity.

Resilient Puerto Rico is installing solar-storage microgrids, using 12-kW systems, although their grid power costs 23 cents/kWh, while power in the Northwest costs closer to 10 cents/kWh. It does not seem cost/effective to provide dedicated battery backup for Hayden Island EV charge stations. Instead, electric vehicles themselves could provide resiliency.

– A microgrid operator needs to sell power to customers for 13-14 cents/kWh to be profitable. Few would be willing to pay double to get battery resiliency in Portland that will only last a few hours. The cost of batteries to provide community-wide microgrid power backup couldn’t be justified unless it supported a hospital or other vital community service.

– A solar EV charge station may be a cost-effective “microgrid” solution if existing electric vehicles, charged with solar power, could provide emergency power at NO additional cost.

Portland Public Schools added 1.2 megawatts of solar atop classrooms, partnering with PGE and the Bonneville Environmental Foundation through the Solar 4R Schools program.

Powering an EV charge station with solar has the advantage of providing both resiliency (by storing electricity in a 60 kW/hr car battery) and by generating a revenue stream from both car rental and from EV charging fees.

Transportation is the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions in Oregon. For the residential and commercial sectors, electricity is the greatest contributor of greenhouse gases, due mainly to coal and gas powered power plants.

Hayden Island could be a credible test site, with service restricted to a small area that serves a large mall and nearby community that’s close to a metro area. Ford told investors that the cost of operating a driverless transportation service would be about $1 per mile, compared with about $2.50 for an Uber; between $1.50 and 70 cents for a personal car; and 30 cents for mass transit.

Drive.ai’s self-driving vans are based on the Nissan NV200. A 200-kilowatt fast charger for autonomous transit using a drive-over inductive pad is available from Momentum Dynamics.

Ford will test autonomous vehicles in Washington DC in early 2019 after launching them in Miami and plans to launch commercially in Washington, Miami and other unnamed cities starting in 2021. Dozens of cities are testing autonomous vehicles.

Waymo was the first company in California allowed to test robot cars on public roads with no human driver. Waymo uses self-driving minivans in Phoenix and plans driverless service to the public in parts of Arizona by year’s end.

A camper van, based on the Nissan cargo van, might rent for $60/day or $300/week, generating perhaps $12K/year for a neighborhood non-profit and paid off in about 3 years.

A community solar charging hub could generate revenue from charging private electric vehicles while providing community resiliency and enabling individuals and companies to offer rental vehicles and bikes.

A used electric car on Turo might rent for $40/day or $15/hour. If an electric vehicle generated $800/month, then a $10,000 vehicle might be paid off in a year, then generate funds for a neighborhood association.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently demonstrated a 120-kilowatt wireless EV charging system which transfers power at the same rate as a wired Tesla Supercharger and at more than two times the rate of the wired 50-kilowatt DC fast chargers. The system draws electricity from the grid and converts it to high-frequency alternating current, which generates a magnetic field across a six-inch gap of air. An autonomous vehicle could just roll in for a quick charge.