Free WiFi

Executive Summary
The goal of this proposed project is to provide Hayden Island residents, visitors and shoppers with “free” WiFi while providing a “hot” communications back-up for emergencies.

Many smartphones now support LTE Band 48 natively, such as the Samsung Galaxy S10/20, Note 10/20, Google Pixel 3/4/5, and iPhone 11/12. Mobile WiFi hotspots, like the InSeeGo 8000, may also use band 48 (instead of cellular bands) for their backbone, lowering monthly data fees dramatically.

Here’s an earlier PDF version of this paper and a proposal for a $600 WiFi hotspot in a weather-proof pelican case (pdf).

This paper proposes four WiFi hotspots on Hayden Island that can provide “free” internet access. No cellular or land-lines are used. No landline power required. The hotspots are solar powered.

Why not just use mobile hotspots at different locations? Most “unlimited” hotspot plans cost $60-$120 a month. Sharing a public hotspot, powered from your cellular data plan is expensive.

A Franklin R-910 hotspot (pdf) allows captive portal, but you must qualify to use Sprint’s ConnectAll $12/mo unlimited service as a non-profit or low-income person. You can’t beat that price.

Lifeline service expanded to cellular data in 2018. Assurance Wireless and Access Wireless provide a free phone and 2 GB data a month, but the program is rife with fraud and corruption and most carriers don’t offer mobile hotspots (except via smartphone).

But a satellite terminal (especially if the data service is shared among four independent hotspots), is likely to be cheaper than four, $60/month cellular hotspot plans. More importantly, satellite data will work even if local cellular is out. Resiliency is the goal of this approach.

This $12,000 system is designed to work after a major earthquake, using satellite internet connected to four hotspots. Ad revenue is anticipated to cover operating expenses of $200-$300 a month.

It’s modeled for maximum sustainability. It does not require ANY subscription revenue. Advertisers pay for the service.

A rental electric bike, charged with solar power may be an alternative solution. The WiFi hotspot and a 400 watt/hr battery would be kept charged — while generating revenue from electric bike sharing.

Project Overview
This proposed project would use Hayden Island’s RV park WiFi network as a model for the whole island. It differs in that it provides internet access using a consumer satellite rather than a DSL or Cable modem. Primary service would use Gigabit fiber to the central hub. The satellite would provide back-up. Digital signage provides the revenue.

A satellite-based internet terminal on the roof of a hotel or tallish building would enable 4 hotspots to be connected to the satellite hub wirelessly. The system would operate without land lines, cellular connections, or AC power, providing emergency communications after power loss.

More than a million people in Mexico are in walking distance of a satellite-enabled community Wi-Fi hotspot, using Viasat’s Community WiFi. Viasat Urban Wi-Fi offers a resilient internet solution that helps bring connectivity in areas where mobile coverage is lacking.

The $99/mo ViaSat satellite internet service is cheaper than cellular data and works when cellular is down. ViaSat-3 Americas is scheduled to start service in the second half of 2020 with more than 6 times the bandwidth (1 Terabit/sec) of ViaSat-1.

Satellite Advantages over Cellular or Landlines
Satellite internet access is still relatively slow and expensive compared to virtually all other options, including Comcast, CenturyLink, Stephouse Wireless or Google Fiber. Those providers would supply our primary feed.

Satellite internet has one thing landlines and cellular don’t offer: it will work if there’s no power or landlines are down. Satellite internet is used as a backup to the landline. A load-balancing router automatically kicks in the satellite link if the landline goes down.

HughesNet Gen5 was the first U.S. satellite Internet service to offer 25 Mbps download and 3 Mbps upload – from coast-to-coast. Plans range from 10 to 250 GB/month with the same 25 Mbps speed on every plan. If monthly plan data is exceeded, service continues at a reduced speed until the next billing cycle.

ViaSat-2 plans offer “unlimited” data, which equates to about 150 GB/month. If consumers go over the cap, they may experience slower speeds if the network is crowded. But Viasat won’t charge overage fees. A big advantage.

ViaSat2 fees equate to roughly 35 GB/month, costing about $25/month (split over four hotspots) – that’s about 1/4 the cost of cellular which usually costs twice as much for half the capacity – using small, cheap, battery powered hotspots.

HughesNet, by contrast, offers 25 megabit-per-second speeds across all of its Internet plans using Jupiter 2. Its fees are based on data usage, with 10 GB/month going for $50 a month, 20GB/month for $60 and 50GB/month for $100 a month. While HughesNet monthly caps are more restrictive, their Jupiter 2 satellite is better positioned over the West Coast (at 97° W) than ViaSat 2 (at 70° West).

The earlier Hughes Spaceway covers all of North America (both green & light-green areas) but Jupiter-1 only covers the dark green areas. Jupiter-2 (Echostar 19) the latest version, offers better data rates (up to 25 Mbps down/3 Mbps up) but Oregon coverage is LACKING (see below).

All this changes when ViaSat-3 and Jupiter-3 launch in 2019/2020, which will double speed again, and when OneWeb’s LEO satellites become available shortly there after, which promise much better latency and speed.

The coverage holes of Hughes Gen5, Jupiter 2 near Portland (Echostar 19 at 97.1 West) are covered by the Gen4 Jupiter 1 satellite, (Echostar 17 at 107.1 West), but speeds are limited to 15 Mbps down. Best bet may be to wait for Jupiter 3 and Viasat 3.

ViaSat-3 looks like it will have the best Oregon coverage, but the Jupiter 3 satellite isn’t slated to launch until 2021. The Jupiter-3 satellite will have more than 500 gigabits per second of total capacity, making it one of the highest capacity satellites under construction.

By that time, however, the LEO-based OneWeb and SpaceX Starlink constellation may be about ready to go. In June 2019, SpaceX applied to the FCC for a license to test up to 270 ground terminals—70 nationwide across the United States and 200 in Washington state at SpaceX employee homes. SpaceX thinks Starlink will provide backhaul for 5G cellular towers in remote locations. SpaceX says each first generation Starlink satellite will have around one terabit of useful connectivity throughput via ground relay stations, and eventually second or third generation Starlink satellites will use lasers to create a satellite-to-satellite mesh network.

Cloud Management of Hotspots
A second innovation is cloud control of remote access points and seamless roaming. This provides users with the highest level of security, and the convenience of freely roaming between hotspots without having to “sign in”.

Digital Signage
A third innovation is digital signage. It provides the revenue that makes the free WiFi network sustainable. Samsung’s DeX lets low power phones display on large screens via HDMI.

A 16″, USB 3.0 powered portable LED monitor ($150) may be driven with a low power Samsung Chromebook or Lenovo Flex 11 ($270), running Chrome Sign Builder, a digital signage utility, allows you to schedule and display content across your managed Chrome devices. An 18.4″ Samsung tablet with LTE connections ($350) might be another option.

Combining satellite hubs, cloud-controlled hotspots, and digital signage, this solar-powered WiFi hotspot system should be available through the apocalypse AND make money.

Self-sustaining operation
Ad revenue is expected to pay for monthly operation. Monthly operating costs are estimated to be $200 – $300. With a dozen different advertisers, each paying $20-$80/monthly, revenue is expected to cover operating costs. A 501(c)3 WiFi operating company would provide the public service elements and enhance funding opportunities for a demonstration project.

Ad revenue would be provided with digital signage using screens like Samsung’s $450, 19-inch Android Table which might generate $100-$200/month for each hotspot kiosk. Additional revenue might be generated through an associated website.

Digital signage might be a better model than a touchscreen tablet operated by users. Let people use their own phones to search for information.

Ad revenue in this budget system is estimated to generate a total of $200-$1000/month for four hotspots ($50-$250 for each hotspot per month). A modest goal.

This proposal combines a high capacity satellite terminal with four, solar-powered hotspots at strategic locations around the island. Perhaps two Kiosks would be located on the West side (at the shopping center’s street furniture and near Jantzen Beach Moorage or the business park), while the two on the East side might be located at the Red Lion or Oxford Suites, with another near Columbia Crossing or Lotus Isle Park.

More Kiosks could be added after their cost/effectiveness is proven.

The total front-end cost for the satellite terminal and 4 self-contained hotspots is estimated at $12,000. If spread over 3 years, that would amortize at approximately $350/month. It would demonstrate sustainability if, after 18 months, each Kiosk generated approximately $150/month ($600/month total). A grant covering initial front-end costs would show the viability of the self-sustaining model.

Hayden Island, Portland’s only island community, is strategically important. It is the foundation for the Interstate-5 bridge, connecting Vancouver WA to Portland OR. It is also home to some 2,000 permanent residents and some 10,000 people (when visitors to the Jantzen Beach Shopping Center are counted).

Numerous studies suggest the island will be cut off, without access to transportation or communications for a period of weeks in the event of a Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake. More prosaically, an iPass survey found 74 percent of business travelers would chose Wi-Fi over cellular data while 87% of hotel users were frustrated when Wi-Fi is not available.

Needs Addressed with this proposal.

  • Provides a self-sustaining model for communications that operates independently of land-line power, as well as cellular and internet connectivity.
  • Delivers life saving communications for public service workers and the general public.
  • Utilizes state-of-the-art satellite and WiFi gear for greatly improved cost/effectiveness.
  • Provides residents, visitors and shoppers with a “free” amenity while providing a “hot” communications back-up for emergencies.

Managing Hotspots
The free LinkNYC WiFi kiosks in New York City are an interesting model. Flat screens provide ad revenue. Each Kiosk is supplied AC power and Gigabit fiber. The big screens provide only digital signage, while a small tablet on the side enables web surfing and usb plugs provide cellphone charging.

NYC’s WiFi access points use the Ruckus Wireless ZoneFlex 802.11ac wave 2 4×4 access point with Qualcomm VIVE 11ac Wi-Fi silicon providing multi-user MIMO technology, supporting hundreds of simultaneous connections. The kiosks will also incorporate a 3G modem to support 911 calls and emergency services.

The Ruckus Cloud Wi-Fi Management system, used in NYC, allows one person to manage hundreds of hotspots, such as their ZoneFlex T710, an outdoor Wave 2 hotspot, inside the kiosks. Cloud-managed WiFi provides seamless roaming.

The Ubiquiti Unifi Cloud Key provides single sign-on management to all your Ubiquiti networks. Tanaza cloud management is used to control and monitor hundreds of “free” WiFi hotspots in Vancouver BC. The Tanaza firmware is flashed onto commodity hotspots like Ubiquiti and Portland-based Open Mesh. It enables remote management of wireless settings, customized splash screens, authentication and operation from a simple dashboard.

Sharing a Satellite Hub
Multiple User MIMO allows more people to simultaneously share a single WiFi channel. If four different remote access points (themselves feeding multiple users) all tried to use one WiFi backhaul channel, then service could slow to a crawl. Using MU-MIMO, one 80 MHZ backhaul channel might feed four different access points at the same time.

For example, a Linksys WRT AC3200 Open Source Wireless Router with MU-MIMO ($200) or a MU-MIMO router with DFS mid-band spectrum at the satellite hub could dedicate a four stream 5 GHz backhaul to remote Access Points/extenders, such as a Linksys RE9000 or Netgears EX8000.

These extenders, for example could use UNII-1 for the 5 GHZ backhaul to the satellite hub while using 5 GHZ UNII-3 (and 2.4GHz) for the local access point links.

Mesh networking works okay if you just want to extend coverage short distances but it doesn’t work over extended distances such as this application. Mesh networks tend to clog up the network and won’t connect if meshed access points are separated by more than 100-200 feet.

Crosstalk Solutions has video reviews of the best Ubiquiti solutions and solar power WiFi. Ubiquiti is the market leader for installations like RV parks, with gear that is proven.

A Ubiquiti AC access point ($80, with a 19dBi Dual Polarized 2×2 MIMO Panel ($40) or a Ubiquiti UAP-AC-M-PRO ($170) might do the job on a budget. Here are the best Access Point With High Gains.

A dedicated 5 GHz backhaul from the satellite hub to four remote hotspots is probably the way to go.

Unlike standard Wi-Fi protocols, Ubiquiti’s airMAX uses Time Division Multiple Access for Point to Multi-Point backhaul. That allows each of the links to the four client hotspots to send and receive data using pre-designated time slots. It maximizes efficiency and throughput. Plain vanilla MU-MIMO Wi-Fi hotspots, plugged into a big antenna, might work okay for the links to and from the remote hotspots, but Unquiti’s AirMax is designed specifically to do this backhaul job. It’s probably safer to stick with a tested solution.

Digital Signage
Digital Signage is the revenue generator. There are many different systems. You can use large screens, dongles like FireTV, or tablets. A large 42″ monitor would take lots of juice. Our restricted power budget might use a 19″ Android tablet or a 12″ Android tablet with an OLED screen like the Samsung Chromebook which is bright in daylight and power efficient.

Chrome Sign Builder makes it easy to show restaurant menus, images, and YouTube videos and playlists, which can be edited by anyone who has access to the presentation. You create schedules and specify the URLs for contents. Chromebooks use about 15 watts of power. A 27″ monitor powered by USB Type-C or 19″ tablet would sit behind heavy Plexiglas and power down in the evening.

How much revenue would each kiosk generate? Let’s say $125/month ($500/month for 4 hotspot/kiosks).

Cellular-fed Hotspots
The average home broadband subscriber uses 100 GB per month, which would cost hundreds of dollars a month if provided by LTE connections. It’s too damn expensive.

Metro PCS, using T-Mobile’s network, may have the best data plans, offering 4G LTE Mobile Hotspot, available on any of their phone plans. Metro’s $60 unlimited smartphone LTE data plan delivers full available speeds to 8 GB of hotspot data per payment cycle, then speeds slowed for remainder of payment cycle.

A solar-powered tablet, for example, might deliver only advertising on the screen but provide free WiFi via its mobile hotspot feature. At $10/month per ad, times 6 ads, it might break even ($60/mo). But a cell-fed public hotspot also might blow through 8GB in a week or two.

A public WiFi hotspot would need to support at least 25GB of downloads a month (times four). That capacity would cost more than $100/mo from cellular providers, or $400+/month using four hotspots. That’s too expensive — ads couldn’t support the service. The Best Unlimited 4G LTE Data Plans include hotspot data (most don’t).

The big four carriers now offer unlimited plans with unlimited talk, texting and data. Prepaid plans are available from Cricket (AT&T), MetroPCS (T-Mobile), and Boost (Sprint).

Boost Mobile’s $50/Month Unlimited Plan has prepaid unlimited voice, messaging and high speed data, but like all “unlimited” plans it’s not really without limits. Video streaming is degraded to 480p resolution, and hotspot is throttled to 128 Kbps after 8 GB is used.

But never say never. Non-profit Sprint based unlimited plans from, PCs for People, and Calyx Institute offer unlimited mobile internet service on Sprint’s 4G LTE network for low-income individuals or non-profits for only $10-$20 a month.

Netgear’s AirCard 790 mobile hotspot, for example, could be enhanced with a $25 external LTE antenna. The whole thing could be powered by a $50 30Ah Portable battery and kept charged with a $60 5V/20 watt panel. That totals about $350.

A Huawei Pocket WiFi router supports up to 612 Mbps connections (using 2.5 GHz) while the built-in 2400mAh battery provides up to 8.5 hours of continuous communication time. With an external 24,000 mAh battery and 25 watt solar panel, it should provide continuous service.

But if each cell-fed hotspot costs $50-$100/month to operate, it’s unsustainable, (at $200-$400/month for 4 hotspots). That’s more expensive than nearly all the cable, DSL or satellite options. A 50 GB satellite plan at $100-$130/mo delivers 5 times the data of an 10 GB cellular plan. And cellular wouldn’t have the emergency back-up component, which is the prime motivation for this proposed concept.

The MulteFire Alliance lets anyone create their own LTE network, and operate in the unlicensed spectrum (5 GHz or 3.5 GHz). This means Hayden Island could create a private LTE network, leveraging narrowband LTE IoT technology. It’s like WiFi. Unlicensed. But uses LTE protocols. For phones.

The Samsung S9, in stores March 2018, uses a Qualcomm 845 with X-20 modem for 3.5 GHz capability. That means new phones may use (the unlicensed) 3.5 GHz band along the Vancouver Waterfront as well as Hayden Island. Tracking vessels, pets and property over a 15 mile radius would not require cellular overlords. It may several years before businesses along the river get clued in. But it’s happening.

Satellite Bottom Line
Bottom line: satellite data (at least for Viasat-2 and Hughes Jupiter-2), costs less than cellular and is available now. Digital signage generates monthly revenue, and the satellite will work if cellular goes down. The incremental cost of adding satellite data is relatively small, adding 10%-20% to the system cost over a single land line.

HughesNet’s Jupiter-2 will standardize on a peak of 25Mbps down and 3Mbps up. A 20 GB Plan costs $69.99/mo, a 30 GB Plan – $99.99/mo, and a 50 GB Plan – $129.99/mo. Sharing 50 GB and a 25Mbps speed over four different hotspots isn’t ideal ($30/mo for 12GB x 4 hotspots), but it’s half the cost of previously available satellite internet, cheaper than cellular and provides redundancy.

In addition, every one of these plans comes with 50GB of monthly “Bonus Bytes” that can be used between 2am and 8am for system updates and bulk downloads. Jupiter-2 is available now. Jupiter will provide 100 mbps or more to consumers in 2021.

Satellite access using Hughes Gen5 is available now. specializes in providing tripod-based portable systems for RVs that continually roam into different spot beams. Residential systems provision more easily because they stay within one spot beam.

The RV DataSAT 840 is a new consumer-focused satellite internet terminal, designed specifically for RV roof mounting. The accompanying Insta-Sat service plans allows pay-as-you go data to be purchased without a contract, monthly fee, or long term commitment. Sprinter Tech, in St. Johns, installs satellite dishes in vans like the Sprinter. But we could sacrifice the auto-positioning satellite for a cheaper, flat 100 GB a month service plan, something unlikely available in anything but Viasat2 and Jupiter2 terminals.

The viability of a community-based 501(c)3 providing shared hotspot service may make sense if WiFi can be successfully delivered to the end-users and operations can be sustained through modest funding.

System Description
The satellite hub links to four remote solar-powered WiFi hotspots using a wireless bridge in the 5GHz band. Hotspot coverage area can expand with additional meshed hotspots and automatically connect together.

Today, ViaSat’s Exede Internet service delivers about 12 Mbps to individual users with a 25 GB monthly allowance for around $99/month using the company’s first generation, 140 gigabit-per-second satellite. Cost is headed down while speed and capacity are headed.

ViaSat-2, scheduled for availability in late 2017, will have similar capability and cost of the Hughes Jupiter 2, available now. These two consumer broadband satellite providers make satellite-fed hotspots practical for the first time.

Jupiter-2 and ViaSat-2 represent a huge increase in satellite capacity.

High Throughput Satellites (HTS) provide small satellite terminals such as the Hughes Jupiter and Viasat-2 with more bandwidth. High throughput satellite platforms should provide enough throughput to enable satellite-fed WiFi hotspots for emergency communications, even when the lights go out, as well as delivering a low-cost, high-value service for both visitors and residents.

Today, satellite data caps are the most important metric, not raw speed. If one satellite terminal is shared by four hotspots, a minimum data cap of 50-100 GB/month may be necessary.

However, satellite data might be considered a backup.

Landlines may be used as the primary feed for this system. Satellite data would only provide back-up. A load balancing router ($85) automatically selects the best internet source according to the load – which would be landline 95% of the time.

Providing both a cable ($80/mo) and satellite connection ($120/mo) to the hub would cost a total of ~ $200/month.

Satellite-fed Hotspots
The Hayden Island Network (HI-NET) uses proven WIFI technology and architecture. It has been used by RV Parks and campgrounds around the country for years. We use basically the same architecture but add a satellite terminal for redundancy. A wireless bridge links the internet/satellite hub to WiFi hotspots up to a mile away.

As LTE has become ubiquitous, only a few businesses remain in the RV data satellite business, supporting mostly mobile tripods using StarBand or HughesNet (for about $1000). The RV DataSAT 840, using Hughes, is the only push button satellite RV system now available but it costs about $6500 installed at

Mount a Viasat antenna on a van and you’d have WiFi to go – anywhere. C-COM has mobile auto-deploying (iNetVu®) antennas for Viasat (EXEDE) for vehicular satellite broadband.

Stick it on top of an old $800 van. It’s not going to be a daily driver and you’ve got secure storage and a generator with 20 gallons of gas.

Of course 25 Mbps divided over four hotspots is only about 6 Mbps each, so users can’t be watching a lot of You Tube or Netflix – without supplementing the satellite hub with fiber or cable. Previously, data caps on satellite terminals made multiple hotspots too expensive and impractical. Now they can work – in a pinch.

These satellite-fed hotspots deliver a low-cost, high-value service — even when the lights go out.

Satellite terminal
The $400 ViaSat Surfbeam 2 satellite terminal (datasheet) uses a 1 meter (3 ft) dish. It draws about 80 watts and would feed two sector antennas (East and West) on the Island where the solar powered hotspots are located. The similar HughesNet Gen 4 system offers 50-100 GB/month for about $90/month.

The ViaSat SurfBeam 2 Pro Portable Terminal (above) is a much more expensive ($10K) and portable version of the consumer ViaSat Excede terminal you can get on eBay.

The satellite terminal feeds two Ubiquiti backhaul radios that connect to the four remote WiFi hotspots. The satellite hub would be run from AC grid power most of the time with a small Honda 2000 Generator providing power in case of a power outage. It’s quiet and uses about 1 gallon of gas in 8 hours.

WiFi bridges
The Ubiquiti-based WiFi network, built by TenGo for the Jantzen Beach RV Park, is a pretty good model. It connects to remote hotspots through point-to-multi-point (sector) antennas and could be extended to reach most of the island by using larger antennas.

To feed the hotspots, Ubiquiti’s Multi-point hub might use two Rocket5ac Prism radios with two sector antennas on a roof. That should reach several miles when paired with a Ubiquiti’s one-piece Nanostation M5 at the receiving (local hotspot) end. Ubiquiti’s airMAX PtMP Titanium Sectors feature advanced RF isolation and variable beamwidth.

Portland’s Invictus Networks is a national distributor with lots of expertise on Ubiquiti gear. Here’s an in-depth video walking through a Ubiquiti Point to Multi Point setup. A Ubiquiti 5GHz Nanostation ($80) receives the 2,500 ft backhaul. This proposal should probably budget at least $1000 for installation expertise, although that amount is not in the budget. In addition, the Ubiquiti backhaul gear might be dropped in favor of a one-piece Wave-2 MIMO hotspot that combines both local hotspot coverage with an internal backhaul radio to simplify installation.

The Ubiquiti bridge connects the remote hotspots to the central hub. The Ethernet cable from the receiver plugs into the local hotspot, such as an OpenMesh hotspot or Ubiquiti’s Amplifi hotspot.

UPDATE: Far better than a Ubiquiti point to multi-point connection from the satellite hub to four separate hotspots would be a simple Mobile WiFi hotspot that has CBRS (3.5 GHz or Band 48) backhaul links built-in. CBRS-equipped hotspots would eliminate the power hungry and unreliable separate backhaul links to the hub. The hotspot has 3.5 GHz backhaul links built-in. The InSeeGo mobile hotspot now has this. It’s cheaper, more reliable and faster.

WiFi hotspots
We are low balling the freestanding hotspots at ~$1500 each (depending on solar and platform options). The free-standing hotspots would include a wireless bridge ($100), the local hotspot ($250), a $450, 19″ Android Tablet (for digital signage) solar panels ($300), charge controller ($50) and a battery ($350).

Outdoor hotspots might resemble a garden sculpture, propane-powered deck heater or street furniture with a solar panel providing protection from the rain. The base houses a 100-200amp/hr deep-cycle battery for power.

Google’s new WiFi hotspots ($129/each or 3 for $299), features Expandable mesh Wi-Fi using 2×2 Wave 2 specs with simultaneous dual-band Wi-Fi (2.4GHz / 5GHz) for 802.11a/b/g/n/ac with TX Beamforming. Their mesh network links the different hotspots together and determines the best path for your data.

Open Mesh access points like A60 with support for 50-100 simultaneous users is available in a 3×3, 450+1300 Mbps MIMO configuration and can be installed indoors or out. Includes a license for CloudTrax, their cloud-based network controller. You can check the status of your access points, see connected users and their usage, and update network settings. No on-site server required. Google’s new WiFi hotspots ($129/each), have similar specs and may be substituted for the Open Mesh product.

Every Open Mesh access point is automatically mesh enabled. You can add additional units wherever you need them. All access points work together to form a self-organizing, self-healing wireless network with seamless roaming between devices. Their third party software includes Facebook WiFi and MediaShift ads for additional, on-line revenue.

Videos and other information could also be stored on the hotspot. YouTube Go can save videos locally, on the hotspot SD card. Dozens of hours of news and videos could be ready to go, as well as thousands of downloads from the royalty-free Internet Archive including Old Time Radio and e-books and texts.

Solar Operation
Complete independence from grid power is a challenge. The local access points currently use about 15 watts of power while the satellite terminal uses about 80 watts. A 200 amp/hr deep cycle boat battery ($400) could power a hotspot with backhaul and a large screen for about 24 hours (8 amps x 24 hrs = 192 amp/hrs). A timer could automatically shut the system down from 1 am to 6 am.

Much more solar and battery capacity would be needed for the satellite terminal, which may require four, 300 watt panels to keep the batteries charged. This proposal does NOT provide solar or batteries for the hub. Instead, a small generator provides emergency power.

Hotspots use less power. If our power draw is one 27″ monitor powered by USB Type-C (~30 watts) and one MIMO hotspot (~15 watts), then it totals 45 watts, equivalent to ~ 12 volts x 4 amps (P=IE).

A 12 Volt, 200Ah battery has a capacity of 200amps x 12v = 2.4kWh of electrical energy (P=IE). To get this battery charged in 5 hours you need power output of 2.4kWh/5 = 240 Watts of solar. One 240 watt panel delivers ~ 12 amps. But we’re using only 4 amps most of the time. We can keep the battery topped off all day. Genasun charge controllers have low RF interference, important for this application.

If our 40 watt load runs 14 hours (8am – 10pm), that = 840Wh of the 2.4kWh battery. Our daily load, therefore, should consume only about 1/3 the battery capacity and our solar panels should quickly charge the battery. One, 12V, 200a/h battery should work, but we’ll use two, 12v, 100ah Trojans or gell cells (the power equivalent).

Qualcomm’s Wave 2 MU-MIMO chips are expected to lower power requirements. A newer one-piece Wave2 hotspot may also eliminate the need for a dedicated wireless backhaul device, lowering power and equipment costs.

Manufacturers of the Connected Table (specs) use a 530 Watt Solar array feeding into a 12 volt, 225 Amp-Hour Sealed Gel-Cell battery. They provide four AC electrical receptacles and 8 USB charging ports with a Daily Energy Production of 2.1 kWhrs. It provides power for up to three days during inclement weather and provides shade in the daylight and LED lighting at night. However, the Connected Table costs $17,000, more than the entire budget of this proposal.

Perhaps local universities could design an alternative solution, with an incentive provided by mall operators or through grants (with in-kind matching by local home supply stores or marine businesses). After all, a picnic table with umbrella, the solar panel, charge controller and battery may cost $1000-$2000. You can buy logs cheap on Craig’s List and they could make a very attractive, organic kiosk.

Advertising Revenue
Could “free” WiFi be self-sustaining? Who knows. The goal is to pay for operational costs ($200-$600/month). With 100+ businesses in the Jantzen Beach Mall, it seems like a good bet.

Digital signage may generate the most ad revenue. Google’s Bluetooth Beacons could pull in passersby and make it interactive and useful.

Selling ads on a Hayden Island website could supplement revenue from the big screen. The web site would feature topics like eating, events, destinations and social media, with a goal of 5000 page views/month.

Our goal is to generate $1000/month from 4 kiosks and $500/month from the web site, or $1,500/mo total. It should pay for itself in 12 months.

The system manager gets free advertising space. Fiber would provide the primary internet connection. The satellite would always be available as a backup or to supplement the (wireless) fiber feed.

Community Evaluation
Portland’s Community Centers, Parks and Fire Stations might be provided with free WiFi. Google Fiber could provide plenty of bandwidth to the wireless hub.

As a public agency, PBEM cannot support any activity that might be perceived as endorsing a business. However Neighborhood Associations can, and their endorsement may bring a 501(c)3 tax status, a vital incentive for donations.

A stand-alone 501(c)3 organization might assure continued support and a complementary mix of public service and commercial interests.

City-wide, municipal wireless projects failed big-time 10 years ago. Today, however, Google fiber, MU-MIMO, and insatiable consumer demand are changing the landscape. Portland’s Google Fiber, at $70/mo for 1Gbps, provides enough bandwidth to feed dozens of smaller nodes, each with 50-100 Mbps wireless backhaul. Fiber and newer (5G) wireless technologies are increasingly cost/effective.

Portland’s Fiber-to-the-Premises Feasibility Study and Seattle’s Fiber-to-the-Premises Feasibility Study have more documentation. While MU-MIMO links and fiber hubs won’t enable a solution for everyone, other neighborhoods could learn from Hayden Island’s model.

Since “free”, unlicensed 5GHz spectrum will soon be taken over by Verizon, AT&T and T-Mobile for subscription cellular service, the time to act is now.

Proof of Concept
A proof of concept might utilize the same gear, testing a 5GHz Rocket5 ac Point to Multipoint radio ($120) plugged into a 90 degree sector antenna ($120), and paired with a one-piece 5 GHz Nanostation ($85), plugged into a Ubiquiti Amplifi hotspot ($299). A contractor like Invictus Networks might test the system at 8 different points around the island and produce a report for ~$1000 in the spring of 2017 after ViaSat 2 is operational and price points are established.

Enabling wireless to compete with fixed wire-line providers like cable and fiber is the ultimate goal. A revenue model might be more akin to software as a service, similar to Bloomberg, and not based on GB/month or advertising.

Project Summary
A new generation of consumer internet satellites can deliver wireless backhaul to four public hotspots. Solar-powered hotspots eliminate landlines, cellular service and even power company electricity. Self-sustaining operation could be enabled through advertising. Monthly revenue from advertising is estimated at $200-$1000/month. Additional solar-powered hotspots could be easily added for $2000-$5000 each (depending mostly on Kiosk design) with the local owner and kiosk manager splitting revenue.

Grants or donations totaling approximately $12,000 would likely cover the front-end costs (less labor). Solar panels may be supplied via in-kind contributions by local companies like SolarWorld and SoloPower. Marine companies may help with electrical work. Realistically, another $3K probably should be added to the budget for labor and spare parts, but costs may also be reduced by $3K-$5K through in-kind contributions.

Potential grantors might include Meyer and Murdock foundations, Jantzen Beach Shopping Center, the City of Portland, private moorages and condominiums. It could be operational by summer, 2017.

It’s not a pipe dream. Free, solar-powered community WiFi can pay for itself with advertising. It provides communications resiliency after the apocalypse. What’s not to like?